英语里主语常用人称和非人称两种形式来表达。用非人称主语表达时,往往注重“什么事发生在什么人身上”。而汉语则较常用人称主语表达,侧重“什么人怎么样了”。
  如1. A terrible thought suddenly struck me—had I locked the door?
  我突然产生了一个可怕的想法——我锁门了吗?
  例2.A strange peace came over her when she was alone.
  她独处时感到一种特别的安宁。
  英语中非人称作主语的句子主要有两种类型:
       a非人称主语句采用“无灵主语”(inanimate subject),表示抽象概念、心理感觉、事物名称或时间地点等,但谓语却常常使用“有灵动词”(animate verb)表示人或社会团体的动作和行为,如:see,desert,find,bring,witness,give,escape,surround,kill,deprive,serve,send,know,tell,permit,invite,take,drive,prevent…from等,这类句子往往带有拟人化(personification)的修辞色彩(如上面两个例句)。
       b用非人称代词“it”作主语
  例如:It never occurred to me that she was so dishonest.
  译文:我从没有想到她会这样的不诚实。
  英语中的这类句子具备着含蓄幽默、生动活泼、客观公正、简洁凝练、句型多样等特点,所以使用广泛。但是由于汉、英两种语言属于不同的语系,所以在翻译这种无灵主语句时,要考虑到英语的思维方法,然后转换为汉语的思维方法,把句子的内在意义用汉语表达出来。下面就将非人称(impersonal)主语句英译汉的基本方法略作探讨。
  1. 如果主语暗含着条件、因果、时间、地点、方式等意义时,用人作主语,把原来的主语翻译成各种形式的状语。
  例如:The forty years, 1840-1880, brought almost ten million migrants to America.
  译文:从1840至1880这四十年中,近一千万移民移居美国。
  2. 当谓语动词是情感型使动词时,如:surprise,disappoint,excite,disturb,inspire,puzzle,annoy,trouble,irritate,shock等;或得失型动词,如:lost,get,gain,take,fail,save,win,leave等,翻译时可保留主语,把谓语动词转译成“使……”结构。
例如
1) The beautiful scenery gained the place quite a reputation.
译文:美景使这个地方颇有名气。
  2). Her habit of biting her nails irritates me.
  译文:她咬指甲的习惯使我生气。
  3. 把原句中表示生命概念的词变成主语,引申谓语动词的词义,并采用逆行翻译法。
  例如:1) When he had to speak ,his confidence suddenly deserted him.
  译文:当他不得不说话时,他突然失去了信心。
  2) It seems that a very difficult decision now faces him.
  译文:他好象面临着困难的抉择。
  4. 当有灵动词是某些感官动词,如:see,witness,speak,tell等时,保留无灵主语,引申动词词义。比如,有时可把谓语动词引申为含有“显示”,“表明”,“产生”等意义的词。
  例如:The blood-stained glove told of the bandit’s crime.
  译文:血迹斑斑的手套就是匪徒的罪证。
  5. 重新确定主语,引申动词词义。
  例如:It is generally felt that his appointment was a grave mistake.
  译文:现在许多人觉得,当时对他的任命是个严重的错误。  
  6. 译成汉语的无主句。
  例如:Rumors had already spread along the street.
  译文:大街小巷早就传遍了各种流言蜚语。
  7. 由于汉语“无灵主语”与“有灵动词”搭配通常被用作一种修辞手段—-拟人化,所以有些句子我们不妨也采用“拟人化”的汉语句型来表达。
  例如:Don’t talk to me about no opportunity any more, opportunity’s knocking down every door in the country, trying to get in.
  译文:别说什么机会难逢,机会正在国内挨家挨户敲门,想要进去呢。
  此外,英语的“there be”句式及用不定代词“one”作主语的句子也具有非人称倾向,汉译时仍可采用上面提到的技巧。
  例如:In 1955, there was a strike participated by six thousand workers.
  译文:1955年,六千名工人举行了一次罢工。
 
  再看几个例子:
  1. I am very sorry that the pressure of other occupations has prevented me from sending an earlier reply to your letter.
  2. The smallest excuse would have served.
  3. Paying his son’s debts left him almost penniless.
  4. That night sleep eluded me.
  5. The old house has seen better days.
  6. Everything at the party spoke of careful planning.
  7. The year 1949 witness the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
  8. The universe is not rich enough to buy the vote of an honest man.
  9. The light from the stars started on its journey long time ago.
    10.One must be a servant before one can be a master.
 
    有读者问起笔者所译“大江东去,浪淘尽千古风流人物”(Chinese history sees Yangtze run;with rolling waves thousands years and myriad heroes are gone)中前一句如何理解。这一句型在英语中比汉语中常见,其特征是以无生命事物作为主语,语言学家Holliday把它称为“无灵主语句”。例如“The world history has seen more tears than laughter”(在世界历史上泪水比欢笑多),“The new century will see a significant and far-reaching change in China”(中国在新世纪将发生重大而深远的变化),“The year 2003 witnessed a unprecedented disastrous flood in Huai river basin”(2003年淮河流域发生了史无前例的洪灾)和“September finds agreeable weather in Shanghai”(九月的上海天气宜人)都属于这种句型。
  英语中使用这一句型一方面是为了表达生动、有力,另一方面也和西方的思维方式有关。英美更重视客观性,因此表达倾向于更多地使用客观事物做主语。例如,表达“他总是很机智”,我们也许会说“He is always quick-witted”,但“Quick-wit never deserts him”的说法更地道、有力。表达“我突然有了一个好主意”中国学生倾向于说“Suddenly I have a good idea”,而英美的人会说“As plen did idea suddenly occurs to me”或“A good idea suddenly strikes/hits me”。使用无灵主语句可以使句子更加紧凑简洁。如“她做事效率高,又不会发火,简直是个天使”可以翻译成“High efficiency without anger make she ran angel”,把三句压缩成一句。
  学术文章中这一句型可以使语句显得更加庄重、客观。如“We carried out more experiments and found some exciting results”和“Further experiments gave us some exciting results”相比,后一句不仅简洁,而且像是出自研究人员之手。不过,在口语中也有这一句型,如“His name slips my mind”(我忘了他的名字),“Words fail me!My favorite team lost.”(我无话可说。我最喜欢的队输了)。由于这一类句型涉及英汉语言和思维的差异,所以考试中多次出现。如1998年6月四级考试第40题“The last half of the nineteenth century __ the steady improvement in the means of travel”(正确答案为haswitnessed);1996年考研英语阅读理解Passage5的开头一句“Rumor has it that more than 20 books on creationism/evolution are in the publisher'spipelines”(据传有20多本关于神造论和进化论的书即将出版)难倒了众多考生。1999年6月四级阅读PassageFour第38题中也出现了“the toy industry has witnessed great leaps in technology inrecent years”的选项。类似句子在作文题中也大有用武之地。

The Ants and the Grasshopper

  On a cold, frosty day the ants began dragging out some of the grain they had stored during the summer and began drying it. A grasshopper half-dead with hunger, came by and asked the ants for a morsel to save his life.

  “What did you do this past summer?” responded the ants.

  “Oh,” said the grasshopper, “I kept my myself busy by singing all day long and all night, too.”

  “Well then,” remarked the ants, as they laughed and shut their storehouse, “since you kept yourself busy by singing all summer, you can do the same by dancing all winter.”

  The story tell us a universal truth, “You might be unable to solve the problem as meet it if you didn’t make a plan of the future beforehand.”    ———-Translator

译:

         蚂    

在一个结了霜的寒冷日子里,蚂蚁们把夏天贮存的粮食拉到外面晒干。此时,一只饿得半死不活的蝗虫,来到这儿求蚂蚁给他点儿吃得。

蚂蚁问道:“夏天你干什么去啦?”

“哦!”蝗虫说,“我一直忙着唱歌呢。”

“那好,你就继续唱吧。”蚂蚁关上仓库门嘲笑蝗虫,“既然你夏天忙着唱歌,不如冬天就跳舞得啦!”

这个故事告诉我们,如果预先不为将来打算,事到临头,便会难以应付。

 9.13高口英翻中题目


    In general, investment in the United States will be in the form of a subsidiary. It is possible for a non-U.S corporation to operate a branch office in the United States, but there are significant disadvantages to a branch, particularly with respect to its tax treatment.


    Branches of non-U.S corporations are not subject to federal regulation or registration requirements. However, each state will require a “foreign” corporation to “qualify” before “doing business” in that state. A corporation will be considered “foreign” if it is organized under the laws of another country or another state, and so this in not a requirement imposed only on non-U.S investors.


    “Doing business” is a technical term that implies a substantial presence in the state. This would include the ownership of leasing of real property, the maintenance of a stock of goods for local sale, employee and the like. Selling products to local customers, either directly or through an independent sales representative or distributor, would not in itself constitute “doing business”.


    The State actually exercise little control over the qualification process other than to ensure that the qualifying entity’s name is not confusingly similar to an already registered entity and that all registration fees and taxes are paid (qualification is basically a form of taxation). In most states, qualification for a non-U.S corporation consists of a relatively easy application, a registration fee, and a notarized of legalized copy of the corporation’s articles of incorporation (in English or a certified translation).


    9.13高口英翻中参考答案(新东方版权所有,转载注明出处)


    一般而言,外国公司都是以设立分公司的形式在美国进行投资。然而,这种方式纵使可行,不足之处也非常显著,特别体现在所需缴纳的高额税款方面。


    当某公司被视作为外国子公司时,就可以免受美国联邦规章制度的限制。但要想成为合格的一分子并享受此番待遇也并非易事,需要满足相应条件,即它需要遵守其它国家的规章,这也就是美国对外国子公司的定义。


    在美国,公司开始营业被学术地称为“办公”,其标志一般是需要有办公区,货物储备以及工作人员等等。否则就未能达标。换句话说,无论是直接在本地售货,还是通过经销商或第三方代销都不算“办公”。


    其实,美国检验这些外国子公司是否合格的流程相当简单,与此相比,检验公司名称的过程就及其繁复。必须确保没有重复或容易混淆的名字。因为保护已纳税的公司的商标名也是政府应尽的义务之一。在美国大多数州,检验外国子公司是否合格的流程相对来说比较简单,只要缴纳更名费,再用英文(或官方翻译)对公司商品合格证进行公证就可完成。


 

  翻译专业也因为奥运会在中国的召开而愈加受到留学生的青睐。对于中国留学生来说,学习翻译专业,不同国家的不同知名院校有很多。
  法语是联合国的文件用语,巴黎第三大学高级翻译学院和巴黎天主教学院高级翻译学院培养了无数翻译国际人才,是中国留学生的好选择。而如果想学习同声传译或会议翻译,去法国的斯特拉斯堡第一大学比较理想。
  就翻译专业来讲,美国最知名的学校是蒙特瑞国际研究学院。据有关留学专家介绍,美国院校对翻译课程的设置具有很强的实用性,学生除了学习笔译及口译的理论和实践之外,还有很多选修课可供选择。学生可以选择学习法律、经济贸易、科技、计算机等专业翻译方向,为毕业后的就业提供更多的机会。此外,学生在学习期间可以获得在地方行政法庭、国家及国际机构进行笔译及口译的实践机会,符合条件的学生还可申请奖学金。
  据了解,国外院校对招收翻译专业留学生,对中国留学生除了对学习成绩和签证的要求外,会比较强调学生的性格和语言的基础。所以,专家建议学习翻译专业的留学生最好是性格开朗活泼,愿意与人沟通。而且在遇到疑难问题时,有良好的心理状态。
  文/小辉

    上海新东方版权所有

    中国古代圣人孔子曾说过:“劳心者治人,劳力者治于人。”这句话反映了中国传统文化中人的地位等级的划分,也直接影响了人们对职业的选择。现代意义上的“白领阶层”是让人羡慕的对象,而“蓝领阶层”即使工资较高,仍有被人看不起的压力。

    在中国,还有另外一句流传甚广的话,叫做“无商不奸”,认为商人“唯利是图”,与君子重义轻利的追求背道而驰,所以在传统文化中经商是被人看不起的职业,但是,随着社会主义市场经济的发展,从商“下海”已经变成许多年轻人择业时的第一选择。现代年轻人选择职业时,已较少传统的观念,更具有现代意识。

    9.13高口翻译参考答案(中翻英)_ 

    Confucius, an ancient Chinese sage, said: “He who uses his brain will govern; he who uses his strength will be governed.” It is a reflection of the demarcation of status in traditional Chinese culture and a direct determiner of career-choosing in China. White collar workers, in modern sense for those using their brains, are the envy of the society while blue collar workers, working by using their strength, are under pressure of inferiority despite their high wages.

    In China, there goes another saying that all merchants are liars. It is generally believed that business is a despised profession in traditional culture as businessmen are profit-oriented, which runs counter to what men of complete virtues should pursue, valuing justice above material gains. However, going into business has become the primary choice for youth in choosing a career, who have shed the shackles of tradition towards modern consciousness.

来源:上海新东方

    本次9.13高口的听译段落,全部来自于高级听力教程第三版。在新东方的口译模考讲评和考前串讲时,还有在新东方春季班和暑假班的课堂上,我提醒过大家要看我的博客的那篇名叫《小绿书》的文章,挑出了高级听力教程里听力翻译未曾考过的重点段落,以做最后冲刺的听力材料用。(http://blog.hjenglish.com/lilongshuai/articles/1112868.html) 这次考试的其中一段是我点出的重点段落中的一段。另一段来自于课堂精讲的一篇Spot Dictation(05.3), 并也在听力教程中出现。08年上过新东方高口听力课的同学,对这两段段应该印象深刻。

    这两段一段来自于P347-P348页第2段,另一段来自于P340. 所以希望大家对高口听力教程(第三版)要绝对重视。

    1.Perhaps most of us would fly into a rage when hearing that we’re similar to a monkey. But in fact, we do share many fundamental characteristics with a monkey. From the point of view of evolution, men originated millions of years ago from the anthropoid, a species commonly referred to as the ape man. Besides, the resemblance of the social organizational pattern between man and monkey is conspicuous. Men are gregarious and generally live in groups, and monkeys also live, play and act together and are led by a monkey king, which has an absolute authority over the other monkeys.

    我们中的大多数人若听说自己像猴子,或许会大为恼火。但事实上我们得承认我们同猴子本质上有许多共同点。例如,从进化的角度看,人类起源于几百万年前的类人猿,同样现代猴子也与古代的猩猩一脉相承。此外,人和猴子在社会组织模式上的相似之处也是显而易见的:人类好交际,过着群居生活,而猴子也一起生活、玩乐、行动,由猴王统帅,猴王拥有绝对的权威。(听力教程P446)

    2. There are different kinds of social relationships. These include relationships with spouses, close friends, siblings and work colleagues as well as relationships between work subordinates and their superiors. Sociologists have done a series of investigations in different countries in the world. These researchers discovered five universal rules that apply to over a half of all these relationships. One, respect the other’s privacy. Two, look the other person in the eye during conversation. Three, do not discuss what has been said in confidence with the other person. Four, do not criticize the other person publically. Five, repay debts, favors or compliments no matter how small.

    社会关系多种多样,包括与配偶、密友、兄弟姐妹、同事或上下级关系。社会学家在世界各国进行过一系列调查,发现这些关系中有五条规则普遍使用。一,尊重他人隐私;二,说话时注视对方眼睛;三,勿与其他人私下议论别人;四,不要当众批评他人;五,及时还钱,并回报别人的恩惠、赞许,无论多不起眼。

      在生活中,从未学过英文的人,比如居委会老大妈、补鞋匠等,可能也会说 Hello 、 Bye-bye 、 OK 。为什么?因为他们经常听别人用这些单词来表达问候、告别、感受等,天天听人说,自己又没有发声障碍,说不出来才怪呢!只要经常听,经常说,辅之一定情景,学好英语应该没有问题。  
  在英语学习中,语言能力的最高体现是学习者形成了对英语的直觉或语言习惯,能够用英语思考问题,就是常说的用英语思维。英语学习不是词汇、语法、翻译和逻辑训练的结果,老是采取翻译、逻辑思考的人就是会说,也绝对说不了流利英语。                                            
      口语的词汇难不难? 
      接触过老外的人都知道,用词非常简单,没有多少生僻的单词或语法,老外说出的东西我们都学过,但是我们就是不会说。所以,善于灵活运用平常的字,是学习英文的不二法门,所以平时老师在武汉英语口语培训中特别注意这个问题,场景教学可以有效解决这个问题。在不同的场景中,同一个词往往含义不同,有时差别很大,有时差别细微,讲得是否地道,能否灵活运用词语或表达方式进行表述,是一个重要的衡量标准。                                                                           
  英语作为一门语言,主要的功能是交流的工具,它的用处如此之大,以至于在交流时我们全然忘了语言的存在。既然是工具,掌握它的最好方法是为用而学,在用中学,边学边用,才能真正掌握。语言的本质在于表达鲜活的思想和丰富多彩的生活,通过语言来做事、来生活、来享受,离开这点,再权威的教科书、再知名的专家,所教授的英语都是 Dead English 。老师在武汉英语口语培训中运用的自然语境教学法认为,英语教学的实质是交际 , 是基于场景的鲜活的交际,即: Teaching of communication, teaching by communication, and teaching for communication 。                                                                                        
      我们经常有这样的体会,下了很大的决心去学习英语,但是没有恒心,三天打鱼两天晒网,不能坚持,最终不了了之,武汉新动态老师在武汉英语口语培训中最爱提醒学员们:唱曲是三天不练口生,何况学习一门外语,想三天就学好英语的想法是不现实的。 
      最后老师建议,如果自己不能持久坚持学习,可以选择课程时间灵活,教学质量高的英语培训学校,这样往往能迅速帮你提高英语。